The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly known as the Humvee, is a four-wheel drive military light truck produced by AM General. Primarily used by the United States military, it is also used by numerous other countries and organizations and even in civilian adaptations. The Humvee’s widespread use in the Gulf War of 1991, where it negotiated the treacherous desert terrain, helped inspire civilian Hummer versions. HMMWVs first saw combat in Operation Just Cause, the U.S. invasion of Panama in 1989. The HMMWV was designed primarily for personnel and light cargo transport behind front lines, not as a front line fighting vehicle.The basic HMMWV has no armor or protection against chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear threats. Vehicles and crews suffered considerable damage and losses during the Battle of Mogadishu due to the nature of the urban engagement; however, the chassis survivability allowed the majority of those crews to return to safety, though the HMMWV was never designed to offer protection against intense small arms fire, much less machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades. However, with the rise of asymmetric warfare and low intensity conflicts, the HMMWV was pressed into service in urban combat roles for which it was not originally intended. Humvees were sent into Afghanistan following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, where they proved invaluable during initial operations. In the early years before IEDs became prevalent, the vehicle was liked by troops for its ability to access rough, mountainous terrain. Some soldiers would remove features from Humvees, including what little armor it had and sometimes even entire doors, to make them lighter and more maneuverable for off-road conditions and to increase visibility. With the onset of the Iraq War, Humvees proved very vulnerable to IEDs; in the first four months of 2006, 67 U.S. troops died in Humvees. To increase protection, the U.S. military hastily added-on armor kits to the vehicles. Although this somewhat improved survivability, bolting on armor made the Humvee an “ungainly beast,” increasing weight and putting strain on the chassis, which lead to unreliability. Armored doors that weighed hundreds of pounds were difficult for troops to open and the newly armored turret made Humvees top heavy and increased the danger of rollovers. The U.S. Marine Corps decided to start replacing Humvees in combat with MRAPs in 2007. The HMMWV has become the vehicular backbone of U.S. forces around the world. Over 10,000 HMMWVs were employed by coalition forces during the Iraq War. The Hummvee has a speed of 55 mph at max gross weight and a top speed of over 70 mph. The M1025/M1026 and M1043/M1044 armament carriers provide mounting and firing capabilities for the M134 Minigun, the Mk 19 grenade launcher, the M2 heavy machine gun, the M240G/B machine gun and M249 LMG.